Intraconal and extraconal compartment

Extraconal orbital compartment Radiology Reference

Extraconal orbital compartment. The extraconal orbital compartment or extraconal space is the space within the orbit outside the musculofascial cone . The base of which is anterior and is formed by the orbital septum that surrounds the equator of the globe. The external sides are formed by the bones of the orbit and their periosteum The posterior compartment, also called the retrobulbar space, is further divided into the intraconal and extraconal spaces. The cone consists of the extraocular muscles and an envelope of fascia. The optic nerve is located within the intraconal space. The bony orbit can be considered the fourth compartment of the orbit If intraconal, it should be decided whether the mass is of optic nerve/sheath origin or arises from some other structure comprising or within the muscle cone. This chapter considers extraconal tumors and those arising extraconally and spreading across the orbital compartments and related spaces The orbit is divided into the ocular compartment or globe, the muscle cone, and intraconal and extraconal spaces (Fig 1). Six extraocular muscles control ocular movements; all but the inferior oblique muscle constitute the muscle cone. The muscle cone converges at the orbital apex, forming a tendinous ring (annulus of Zinn)

Intraconal space The ocular muscles within the orbit form a muscle-cone. These ocular muscles are connected via the annulus of Zin, which is a fibrous connective tissue sheet and together they form the conal space. It separates the intraconal from the extraconal space Ectopic brain tissue is more likely to be intraconal and even intraocular but may be extraconal (Fig. 61.6). Extraconal orbital lesions may involve the postseptal extraconal space, subperiosteal space, and bone The orbital contents are divided into compartments comprising the globe, muscle cone, intraconal space, and extraconal soft tissues (Fig 1a). Located at the orbital base or anterior orbit, the globe wall consists of three distinct layers: the sclera, uvea, and retina. The uvea is composed of the choroid, iris, and ciliary body Axial CT showing diffuse infiltration of the orbit by a soft tissue mass filling intraconal and extraconal compartments, with resultant flattening of the proptosed globe (thick black arrow). The left ethmoid air cells (curved black arrow) and anterior clinoid process (black c) are less well pneumatised

The intraconal compartment lies between the Tenon's capsule and the four rectus muscles while the extraconal compartment lies between the extraocular muscles and the orbital bones [ 4, 10 ] the intraconal from the extraconal compartment - Orbital musculature and surrounding fascia (Zinn's fascia) form the cone itsself referred to as conal compartment In our pictorial review we define the orbital periphery as any orbital structure outside the orbital cone. For didactic reasons and reasons of image analysis the orbital periphery ca With the evolution of better endoscopic endonasal instruments and techniques, the medial orbital compartment becomes easily accessible. While the management of the extraconal lesions appears relatively easy, intraconal pathology requires more technical expertise and a steep learning curve [1, 2] The needle is placed in the extraconal compartment (peribulbar block) through the inferotemporal area. Figure 3: It is a serious complication of both the intraconal and extraconal blocks, which occurs following bleeding behind the globe. The hemorrhage may be either venous or arterial in origin and may be concealed or revealed

The extraocular muscles divide the orbit into intraconal and extraconal compartments. Early vision loss and late onset proptosis is more likely to occur with intraconcal lesions as compared to extraconal lesions that have earlier proptosis and late-onset of vision loss The intraconal space is delimited by the conus, which connects the four rectus muscles to each other. The extraconal compartment takes up only a small amount of space within the orbit, surrounding the muscular conus like a tube. The most common extraconal processes are dermoid tumor (dermoid cyst) and pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland Orbital tumours, located in the medial extraconal and intraconal compartment of the orbit, represent a challenge, with regard to surgical exposure. In the present paper removal of a cavernous haemangioma, located in the medial intraconal compartment was accomplished by combining lateral orbitotomy, midfacial degloving and LeFort-I osteotomy The base of intraconal space is formed by the posterior part of the globe, whereas the four rectus muscles and their fascia surround this space and converge on the common tendinous ring at the orbital apex. The space formed externally between the extraocular muscles and the bony walls is called the extraconal space ( Fig. 4.6). The superior and. The intraconal compartment contains the globe, the optic nerve-sheath complex, orbital vessels. and nerves (Fig. 1). The extraconal compartment consists of the bony orbital walls, fat. and the lacrimal gland. The orbital septum and lid form the anterior or preseptal compartment

In the intraconal compartment we mostly saw cavernous hemangiomas and neurogenic tumors. Signal changes of the intraconal and extraconal fat tissue are possible and a bilateral manifestation is common. springer. Intraorbital sarcoidosis is a rare cause of intraconal pathology Optical lesions were located in the superonasal extraconal compartment (3/6, 50%), bitemporal extraconal compartment (1/6, 16.7%) and orbital intraconal compartment (2/6, 33%). Radiographic features were ill-defined, heterogeneous, enhancing soft tissue masses with extraocular muscular adhesion (6/6, 100%) and calcification (1/6, 16.7%), not.

Compartment-based approach to orbital masses The muscle cone comprising the four rectus muscles divides the orbit into the intraconal and extraconal compartments. The intraconal compartment contains the globe, the optic nerve-sheath complex, orbital vessels and nerves. The extraconal compartment consists of the bony orbital walls, fat and the. In the intraconal compartment we mostly saw cavernous hemangiomas and neurogenic tumors. Lymphomas and a primary meningioma were located in the extraconal space. Beneath the periosteum, bony processes, tumors of the sinuses, dermoid-and epidermoid-cysts normally occur, but we only observed metastases and hematomas

intraconal and extraconal compartment - Google Search. intraconal and extraconal compartment - Google Search. Pinterest. Today. Explore. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Touch device users, explore by touch or with swipe gestures The surgical procedure can be differentiated in an extraconal hematoma of the superior orbit in contrast to a hemorrhage involving the extra- and intraconal compartments in the lower circumference of the anterior and midorbit regions as shown in the previous illustration

Schematic illustration of the orbital contents and

extraconal compartment, 40% (n=20) in intraconal compartment while 12% (n=6) involved both compartment. In the present study; there were 3cases of congenital and developmental anomalies, 1 case of dermoid cyst and 2 cases of coloboma cyst. There were2 cases of coloboma in the present study. It wa There was no evidence of the existence of an intermuscular septum separating the intraconal and extraconal spaces. Those two spaces appeared to be part of a common spreading space, the corpus adiposum of the orbit

The transnasal transethmoidal endoscopic approach can be employed as an alternative when removing intraorbital foreign bodies located in the medial extraconal compartment. This is a safe and less invasive approach in comparison with classic surgical techniques. Competing Interest RMS typically arises in the extraconal compartment; however, intraconal extension is known. It presents with rapidly progressive proptosis, ptosis, or signs of inflammation often prompting urgent imaging. It is an aggressive tumour and commonly infiltrates into the adjacent sinuses, orbital fissures, cavernous sinus, and middle cranial fossa.. the superonasal extraconal compartment (3/6, 50%), bitemporal extraconal compartment (1/6, 16.7%) and orbital intraconal compartment (2/6, 33%). Radiographic features were ill-defined, heterogeneous, enhancing soft tissue masses with extraocular muscular adhesion (6/6, 100%) andcalcification (1/6, 16.7%), not adjacent to the opti

Home - Center for Functional MRI - UC San Diego School of

Vision loss occurs due to a compartment syndrome within the orbital walls that compromises the optic nerve and its blood supply. Detailed knowledge of orbital anatomy is necessary to properly diagnose and safely treat an orbital hemorrhage. Septum divides the orbital fat into the intraconal fat and the extraconal fat; Orbital septum showing tumor lesion of the intraconal/extraconal compartment of the right orbit. As a diagnostic procedure, a surgical biopsy was performed using a hemicoronal approach: (c) the lateral orbital rim was exposed via a hemicoronal approach; (d) following temporary osteotomy of th

Bony Orbit and Extraconal Compartment: Tumors Radiology Ke

Imaging in neuro ophthalmology & revisting orbital imaging

Bounded anteriorly by the septum, the postseptal orbital space can accumulate blood and create a compartment syndrome, thereby damaging the enclosed structures—most important, the optic nerve and the blood supply to the eye. Evaluation. Evaluation of the patient hinges on determining the mechanism leading to the hemorrhage MRI of the right orbit showed well defined altered signal intensity lesions involving the preseptal space and extraconal compartment of the orbit at superomedial aspect, which was continous with the conjunctival swelling. There was evidence of intense post contrast enhancement and a feeding artery extending up to the lesion.(Fig. 1b However, sometimes they may extend into more than one compartment. Here, we describe the various spaces and lesions specific to them: - a) Extraconal Space :- It is bound peripherally by periorbita, internally by four recti and anteriorly by septum Orbital tumors may be divided into extraconal, intraconal, and intracanalicular tumors based on their location relative to the muscle cone. The muscle cone is defined by the extraocular rectus muscles and their intermuscular septae, which separate the intraconal from the extraconal space Breast, Axial CT(A) section shows an intraconal lesion on the right side with bone window(B) showing lytic lesions in the calvarium. In a known case of Carcinoma Prostate, Axial(C) and coronal(D) CT sections show an ill-defined heterogenous lesion in the extraconal compartment of the right orbit with involvement of the superior and medial rect

Orbital Neoplasms in Adults: Clinical, Radiologic, and

Within the intraconal space, the 1. superomedial foramen - optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery pass. 2. superolateral foramen - oculomotor, nasociliary, and abducens nerves pass. 16. Parts of Orbital Apex Orbital apex is divided into the - intraconal compartment - extraconal compartments - passed by the lacrimal, trochlear, and frontal. The intraconal compartment encloses the orbital fat, ciliary ganglion, ophthalmic artery, several cranial nerves (optic, oculomotor, abducens), and a nasociliary branch of the ophthalmic nerve. The extraconal compartment consists of orbital fat, lacrimal gland, abducens nerve, and the frontal branches of the ophthalmic nerve

The Radiology Assistant : Patholog

  1. The common lesions of the intraconal compartment include optic nerve tumours (glioma and meningioma), neurilemmoma, lymphangiomas, etc., The most common extraconal lesions include bony tumours, dermoid, fibrocystic histiocytoma, lacrimal gland tumours, orbitosphenoidal meningiomas, plexiform neurofibromas, histiocytic tumours, leukaemic.
  2. The transnasal transethmoidal endoscopic approach can be employed as an alternative when removing intraorbital foreign bodies located in the medial extraconal compartment. This is a safe and less invasive approach in comparison with classic surgical techniques
  3. ment of the anterior compartment, anterior to the orbital septum, and the posterior compartment of the orbit. In the posterior compartment, there was infil-tration of the intraconal space, with replacement of the retro-orbital fat by abnormal tissue, which led to encasement of the optic nerve, and the extraconal
  4. Orbital tumors can be localized anatomically to within the globe/intraocular or intraconal or in the extraconal space, the orbital apex, the extraocular muscles, or the lacrimal gland. CT remains the modality of choice for evaluation of the bony orbit and paranasal sinuses. MRI is preferred to evaluate the optic nerve and chiasm. [3,4
  5. intraconal and extraconal, in 4 out of 31(12.9%)patients conal region was involved, in 4 out of 31(12.9%) patients intraconal compartment was involved, in 3 out of 31(9.7%) patients extraconal compartment was involved. Percentages of involvement of various compartments are given in Fig. Male 68% Female 32
  6. This is the space inside the four recti muscles and their connections (muscle cone). A very important structure, which lies inside this space, is the optic nerve and its sheath. This can be considered as a separate compartment as its lesions are different than the rest of the intraconal space

It is usually centered on intraconal compartment of orbit and may contain phleboliths visible on imaging. Cavernous haemangioma consists of venous malformation having vascular spaces lined with endothelium and a fibrous pseudo-capsule. Rarely, cavernous haemangioma may be intra-osseous, and thus lies in extraconal compartment The cavity of the orbit has a posterior apex with a pyramid shape (6).The orbit is made up of mainly adipose tissue (6).Anteriorly, the 4 rectus muscles of the eye insert near the equator of the globe (6).Posteriorly, these four rectus muscles insert together at the apex on the tendinous annulus communis of Zinn, through which the optic nerve enters the orbit (6).The four rectus muscles define. MRI provides excellent contrast resolution in the orbit with the demonstration of pathologies in the intraconal and extraconal compartments. The ability to depict cross-sectional anatomy and pathology with better tissue characterization and even without administering intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent is a distinct advantage of MRI. Axial CT slices of the orbits before and after injection of contrast medium (A and B, respectively) showing an expansile lesion, with heterogeneous enhancement, in the lateral compartment of the right orbit, with intraconal and extraconal components, in close contact with the right-side lateral/inferior rectus muscles, optic nerve, ocular. 2 intraconal 7 14% 3 conal 8 16% 4 extraconal 12 24% 5 multicompartmental 22 44 Multi compartmental tumors involving more than one compartment were most predominant in our study accounting for 44% of the tumors. Of the 22multi compartmental lesions 18 were malignant and 4 were benign

Bony Orbit and Extraconal Compartment: Developmental

  1. imally invasive procedure that gives a direct, expandable surgical access to the deep superolateral intraconal compartment, has low morbidity and rapid recovery
  2. A common diagnostic strategy is the localization of the pathology into the four main orbital compartments : the ocular compartment or globe, the muscle cone and the intraconal and extraconal spaces (Figure 1). The muscle cone contains recti muscles and their fasciae; on its base, the globe is present, and the optic canal figures the apex
  3. However, evidence in live subjects shows free movement of injectate between the extraconal and intraconal space [12, 25]. Second, the same volume of injection was used for both techniques, despite evidence in other species suggesting a higher volume being required for PB. Therefore, the effect of a higher volume on contrast spread is not known
  4. The anesthetic agent is injected and diffuses to the posterior ciliary nerves. Fig. 2 .2Major anatomical structures of the orbit. The intraconal space is defined as the compartment bounded by the four rectus muscles. Fig. 3 .3Shift in the position of orbital structures when the globe is in the upgaze position
  5. compartments [2]: the ocular compartment or globe, the muscle cone and the intraconal and extraconal spaces (Figure 1). The muscle cone contains recti muscles and their fasciae; on its base, the globe is present, and the optic canal figures the apex. The globe is encircled by the Tenon's capsule, which has three layers: the sclera, uve
  6. Following structures should be identified: Globe - anterior chamber - posterior chamber - crystalline lens - iris - vitreous chamber Intraconal compartment: - Extraocular muscles - optic nerve - retinal artery and veins - cilliary arteries Extraconal compartment: - orbital lobe of the lacrimal gland - exclude presence of focal masse

extraconal. 网络释义. 短语. extraconal orbital compartment 肌锥外间隙 orbital MRI images with both thick and thin cuts demonstrate an enhancing soft tissue mass of the right orbit involving both the intraconal and extraconal compartments A patient underwent hemicoronal incision and a lateral orbitotomy approach, followed by a biopsy. (a) Clinical picture of a 56-year-old patient with a history of right orbital proptosis for 2 months with no visual impairment.(b) Axial magnetic resonance imaging scan showing tumor lesion of the intraconal/extraconal compartment of the right orbit. As a diagnostic procedure, a surgical biopsy. Lymphoma is usually extraconal and can be nodular, typically involving the superolateral quadrant of the eye and lacrimal gland, or it may be infiltrative with intraconal extension and encasement of the posterior globe. Bilateral involvement raises the suspicion for lymphoma. There may be variable enhancement [41, 59] Intraconal Dissection. The intraconal compartment is bounded medially by the muscular wall ( Fig. 26.6), composed mainly of the medial rectus muscle and, to a lesser extent, the inferior rectus muscle inferiorly and the superior oblique muscle superiorly. The dissection is preferably performed between the medial and inferior rectus muscles

Video: Demystifying Orbital Emergencies: A Pictorial Review

We herein describe orbital tu- mours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melano- ma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal Extraconal compartment The extraconal space is the small area between the muscle cone and the bony orbit. The best plane for visualizing orbitopathy in patients with Graves' disease [27]. Graves' extraconal masses in MRI is the coronal because muscles disease is characterized by bilateral enlargement of eye and the bony orbit can be easily. Motor nerves are entirely intraconal except the trochlear nerve, which has an extraconal course. Its terminal braches enter the intraconal area and blockade of motor nerves depends on the diffusion of local anaesthetic agent into the intraconal compartment The orbit was abutted in 53 (43.1%) patients, whereas orbital invasion reached the periorbit in 18 (14.6%), extraconal fat and/or medial lacrimal sac in 29 (23.6%), extrinsic ocular muscles in 7 (5.7%), intraconal compartment in 4 (3.3%), and orbital apex in 12 (9.8%) Orbital tumours. The approach to the accurate diagnosis of orbital lesions requires initial identification of the space of origin. For descriptive purposes, the orbit has been divided into the following parts: globe, intraconal and extraconal spaces [ 1 ]. As each space has unique contents, the diagnostic possibilities can to some extent be.

Orbital imaging: Part 2

Endoscopic transnasal approach to medial orbital lesions - Volume 129 Issue

Orbital hemangioma as seen on CT in two different patients

The Radiology Assistant : Orbita - patholog

Case Report Transnasal, Transethmoidal Endoscopic Removal of a Foreign Body in the Medial Extraconal Orbital Space DiegoEscobarMontatixe, 1 JoséMiguelVillacampaAubá, 1 ÁlvaroSánchezBarrueco, 1 BeatrizSobrinoGuijarro, 2 andCarlosCenjorEspañol 1 Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Universitario Fundaci ´on Jim ´enez D ´ az, Madrid, Spai Since lower eyelid fat pads are distinct from other intraorbital fat, including extraconal and intraconal fat, each fat compartment requires separate analysis. To better understand the etiology of lower eyelid aging and the role that both lower eyelid fat pads and intraorbital fat volume changes play, future studies should focus on examining. Anterior compartment Bony orbit - Extraconal - Intraconal Optic nerve Globe Retrobulbar space . Orbital Inflammatio to be a discrete compartment similar to the brachial plexus sheath; however, cadaveric and computed tomography (CT) studies have clearly demonstrat-ed the ease of diffusion of injected materials between the intraconal and extraconal compart-ments.21, 22Thus, local anesthetics injected out-side of the muscle cone eventually spread into th intraconal,and extraconal lesions.7-9 Medialorbitotomies are optic nerve incisional biopsies, medial intraconal biopsies, and infer-omedial orbital decompression.3,7 The needforsafe and direct access tothe medialorbit with minimal morbidity lead to the development of the trans- † Compartment and/or organization of clock-fac

Herniation of orbital fat through the inferior orbital

Out of 51 cases, MRI diagnosed 40 cases correctly. Out of the 11 wrongly diagnosed cases, 9 were extraconal, 2 were intraconal in location. Overall, MRI was able to correctly diagnose 78.43% of the orbital tumors. MRI was able to correctly diagnose 69% of the extraconal tumors, 85.7% of the intraconal tumors, and 100% of the ocular tumors The extraconal space is often the first compartment involvedinperiorbitaltumors.Themostcommonandhighly malignant tumor of this location is rhabdomyosarcoma. It is frequent in infancy and presents itself with visual loss, exophthalmos, and motility disturbances. Rarer lesions that can involve the extraconal space ar Sclerotherapy of intraconal LM was infrequently attempted until recently. 3 Early reports using OK-432 and sodium tetradecyl have shown good results, 9, 10 though there is a risk of loss of vision due to orbital compartment syndrome A frontal extradural and upper intraobital extraconal drain was left for 24 hours. Postoperative CT Scann: healed surgically (Fig 7, 8, 9). FIG. 7 Cerebrum window FIG. 8 FIG. 9 Bone window The fracture line lateral fronto-orbital trepanated is figured with duble duble headed white arrow

Pictorial review of extraconal and osseous orbital

To determine the location of orbital air, the retrobulbar orbital space was divided into intraconal and extraconal areas and the extraconal area was further divided into medial, lateral, superior. It is rare for a bullet to be lodged in the orbital cavity without causing much damage to the orbital structure, as seen in the present case. From an anatomic point of view, the orbit is a highly complex area which is divided into two compartments by the extraocular muscles: intraconal and extraconal . Traumatic intraocular foreign body injury. The orbital lesions will often involve the extraconal compartment, but extension in the intraconal compartment is frequently encountered; intraconal disease alone is quite rare. It is more often unilateral. These lesions will be hypointense on T1 and T2-weighted images and show enhancement on T1 post-contrast imaging

Transnasal Endoscopic Resection of the Intraconal

Preoperative MRI of the orbit showed an intraconal intermediate signal mass of pyramid shape in the mediosuperior compartment of right orbit, encasing the optic nerve. The size of lesion was measured 26.5 × 15.3 × 23.1 mm in length. The lesion was separated from the extraocular muscles and showed mild contrast enhancement (Fig. 1) Most orbital pseudotumors are unilateral and either extraconal or transspatial (both extra- and intraconal) in distribution. Only about 5% of masses are isolated to the intraconal compartment. Complications include optic nerve compression with subsequent atrophy and visual loss [ 29 , 30 ] Benign lesions such as hemangioma and schwannoma occasionally arise within the intraconal space. 9 -11 In previous studies, a corridor between the medial and inferior recti muscles via a transethmoidal approach was used to provide exposure of the inferomedial intraconal space. 12,13 However, the medial rectus muscle is a hurdle for. Case 1.15 Intraconal Orbit: Vascular Malformations Case 1.16 Intraconal Orbit: Tumors Case 1.17 Bony Orbit and Extraconal Compartment: Developmental Lesions Case 1.18 Extraconal Orbit: Orbital Pseudotumor, Noninfectious Inflammatory Conditions, and Acute and Chronic Infections Case 1.19 Orbit: Blunt Force, Fractures, and Penetrating Injurie

Orbital regional anesthesia: Complications and their

Compartment involved Extraconal Intraconal Orbital apex . Dr Sweta Meena Page et al JMSCR Volume 03 Issue 03 November 8345 JMSCR Vol||3||Issue||11||Page 8343-8347||November 2015 reported more commonly then previously). In all cases multiple muscle involvement was seen. I Patient 1: extraconal retrobulbar haematoma in the inferolateral compartment, as visualised in axial (a) and coronal (b) CT images. The exophthalmos and dislocation of the oculomotor muscles are easily appreciated

Orbital Compartment Syndrome Due to Acute HemorrhageHead and Neck | Radiology KeyCureus | Spectrum of Orbital Cellulitis on Magnetic

Imaging) showing left well-defined orbital lesion in the extraconal compartment abutting the left lateral rectus muscle with intraconal extension. Figure3:Grossexaminationshowinga3:5×3×2cmwell-defined, greyish-red, lobulated, and firm mass. 2 Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicin After PBA, local anesthetic must spread from the extraconal space into the intraconal space. 24,25 Because the corpus adiposum of the orbit is separated into multiple compartments by a small network of septa, this spread of local anesthetic is sometimes heterogeneous and incomplete A complete exposure of the lateral wall in its boundaries from the lateral aspect of the inferior and superior orbital fissure over the greater wing of the sphenoid, the recurrent meningeal foramen and the zygomaticofrontal suture to the lateral orbital rim can easily be achieved from a superolateral access via a coronal approach