Home

Anatomy of OPG

RACGP - Interpreting an orthopantomogra

An overview of the technique, basic anatomy and nomenclature and common pathology is presented with exam-ples to show the anatomy and nomenclature, the artefacts and common pathology. Key words: dental panoramic tomography. INTRODUCTION Dental panoramic tomography, also known as orthopantomo-graphy(OPG),isacommonlycarriedouttechnique.Manyradiolo Anatomical landmarks in OPG -Orthopantomograph- 34 35. Panoramic radiograph: is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of upper and lower jaw. It shows a two-dementional view of half-circle from ear to ear

Video: Orthopantomogram (OPG) Anatomical Landmarks - Radiology

Anatomy Powerpoint template. Reply Delete. Replies. Reply. Unknown April 20, 2015 at 12:53 PM. I'm impressed, I have to say. Really hardly ever do I encounter a blog that's both educative and entertaining, and let me inform you. you might have hit the nail on the head. Your idea is outstanding; the problem is something that not sufficient. on OPG seems to attract clinicians to make fine observations. Oval-oval being most common in both genders. More sample size and evaluation of other parameters may aid in giving more information about the population and thereby generating interest in forensics. References 1. Standring S. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinica A panoramic radiograph is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. It shows a two-dimensional view of a half-circle from ear to ear 28. In panoramic radiography, the film or cassette carrier and the tube head are connected and rotate simultaneously around a patient during exposure. The pivotal point or axis, around which the cassette carrier and X-ray tube head rotate is termed a rotational center. Three basic rotational centers used in panoramic x-ray machines 1 Here, we discuss the panoramic radiograph (orthopantomogram (OPG, OPT) as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of mandibular trauma and odontogenic infections. In this article, we review the radiographic principles of image acquisition, and how to conduct a systematic interpretation of represented maxillofacial anatomy

Dental panoramic radiographs OPG DPT Anatomical

  1. Anatomy of a panoramic radiograph Although it is obvious that a panoramic radiograph depicts the teeth and jaws in a single convenient view, it may be less clear how the other structures of the head and neck become captured on the image
  2. OPG Normal anatomy on OPG. NB: the third molars (wisdom teeth) are unerupted, which can be normal at 20 years (eruption usually occurs between 16 and 25 years)
  3. Compared to a series of intraoral images, the panoramic image depicts a much larger area of anatomic structures of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, much more time will be spent doing this part of the interpretation. It is critical to have a good understanding of the normal anatomy in order to identify the presence of any abnormalities
  4. Orthopantomogram or OPG is the most commonly used term in clinical practice. Types and Sizes of X-Ray films in Dentistry; A Panoramic Radiograph measures - Size 5 x 12 inch, 6 x 12 inch. Uses of Panoramic Radiograph or OPG: A single X-ray to study both maxilla and mandible reducing Radiation exposure considerabl
  5. Typically used for Temporomandibular Joint evaluation, this radiographic image is a modification of the full jaw panoramic x-ray (OPG) where selected regions of the facial anatomy i.e. the right and left TMJs are imaged in the closed and open mouth positions
  6. Bone metabolism is a dynamic process that balances bone formation and bone resorption. central to this process is the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway. bone formation. performed by stimulating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts. bone resorption. performed by active osteoclast. stimulated by RANKL in normal process
  7. ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPHY(OPG) The orthopantomogram is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way to evaluate the gross anatomy of the jaws and related pathology

Normal Anatomic landmarks on Panoramic - Dental Car

  1. Panoramic radiograph is one of the most widely used imaging techniques by dental practitioners. This imaging technique is an advanced version of conventional tomographic technique, where the X-ray source and the film are placed opposite to each other and move in opposite directions around the head of the patient
  2. ANATOMY OF THE MAXILLARY SINUS. 1. Is the largest of the paranasal sinuses 2. Development begins in utero at 3 months as an evagination of the epithelium of the lateral wall of the nasal fossa 3. At birth is the size of a pea 4. Enlarges after eruption of deciduous and again with permanent teeth. 5
  3. Advantages of OPG are. Opposing landmarks are easily identified. The vertical height of the bone initialy can be assessed. The procedure is performed with convenience, ease and speed in most dental offices. Gross anatomy of the jaws and any related pathologic findings can be evaluated

This is an online quiz called OPG teeth Anatomy There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Search Help in Finding OPG teeth Anatomy - Online Quiz Versio The Frankfurt plane was established at the World Congress on Anthropology in Frankfurt am Main, Germany in 1884, and decreed as the anatomical position of the human skull.It was decided that a plane passing through the inferior margin of the left orbit (the point called the left orbitale) and the upper margin of each ear canal or external auditory meatus, a point called the porion, was most. Conclusion: OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclast formation and function, is expressed at high levels within the inner ear and is secreted into the perilymph and the surrounding bone and may serve to inhibit active bone remodeling within the otic capsule, especially immediately adjacent to the cochlea The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, pantomogram, OPG or OPT) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way to evaluate the gross anatomy of the jaws and. An orthopantomogram (OPG) is an advanced type of Full Mouth Dental X-Ray. An OPG is a panoramic or wide view x-ray, which displays all the teeth of the upper and lower jaw on a single film. It demonstrates the number, position and growth of all the teeth including those that have not yet surfaced or erupted. OPG X-Ray produces a 2 dimensional.

  1. Furthermore, haplotypes generated between rs875525 and two additional neighbouring SNPs (rs2291943 and rs2288474) also revealed a significant association with OPG plasma levels (p < 10(-4)-10(-3)). ANKH genetic polymorphisms in the area between SNP rs2291943 and rs2288474 are strongly associated with OPG plasma levels
  2. including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. Anatomy of a panoramic radiograph Although it is obvious that a panoramic radiograph depicts the teeth and jaws in a single convenient view, it may be less clear how the other structures of the head and neck become captured on the image. It is ofte
  3. Anatomical Structures seen on Orthopantomogram. An OPG which stands for ORTHOPANTOGRAM, gives a panoramic view of the mandible and teeth. It is performed using a technique called tomography. The X-ray tube moves around the head, the x-ray film moves in the opposite direction behind your head

Anatomical landmarks in Periapical and Orthopantomogram X-ra

Facial bone anatomy. Occipitomental (OM) views. Normal anatomy: mandible. The orthopantomogram (OPG) The OPG is a technique for demonstrating the mandible, temporomandibular joints and teeth in a single plane. The X-ray tube and the film cassette rotate around the patient and the exposure lasts a few seconds. A panoramic image is obtained OPG classification from high to low risk of nerve dam-age. The majority of studies (4,5,7-9,12) recommend CT when radiographic signs (diversion, narrowing and interruption in the white line of the canal, and darken-ing of the root) appear in the OPG, indicating a direct relationship between the LTM and the inferior alveolar canal OPG OPG Anatomy of an agile team Product owner Delivery manager Service manager Sole focus is the user. Lives and breathes a product backlog. Makes (almost) all functional product decisions Gets the product delivered to time and budget Manages the stakeholders Gets the budget PROTECTS THE TEA Mandible - Orthopantomogram. Area Covered. Single panaoramic image of the teeth, mandible, TMJ's, nasal fossae, maxillary sinus and zygomatic arch. Pathology shown. Fractures of mandible, TMJ pathology, caries, tooth alignment. Radiographic Anatomy. Mandible Radiographic Anatomy. IR Size & Orientation. 25 x 30cm

Dental Panoramic Tomogram or OPG is a sophisticated x-ray machine used to take radiographic images of the teeth and jaws bone which is in a arch position. We used to call this machine as OPG (which stands for ORTHOPANTOGRAM), which was named after the first x-ray unit. Anatomy The anatomy consists of the body, ramus and angle of mandible. hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; a. spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone. any bony prominence. knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle. cortical bone. hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; a Panoramic radiography, also called panoramic x-ray, is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth in a single image, including the teeth, upper and lower jaws, surrounding structures and tissues. The jaw is a curved structure similar to that of a horseshoe Anatomy of a panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiography is a form of focal plane tomography. Panoramic anatomythe following slides identify the anatomicalstructures found on panoramic radiographsin navigating through the slides you should clickon the left mouse button when you see themouse holding an x ray tubehead or you aredone reading a slide

Diagnostic imaging in implantology | Dental, Dental

Anatomical Landmarks Of Panoramic Radiographswith

Electric-power generation starts with a source of fuel that can be harnessed to create energy. Fuel types include fossil (coal, oil,natural gas), nuclear, and renewable (such as solar power, wind power, falling water for hydro generation, and even garbage and agricultural waste products). Renewables also reduce emissions during power generation Anatomy of a Transmission Line Overhead Transmission Line Components Conductor alternatives Typically aluminum or copper conductors are used. Aluminum is preferred over copper for its lower cost and lighter weight, however, this comes at the price of some energy loss that doesn't occur with copper orthopantomogram (OPG) can provide an overview of the dental status. However, some patients may not be able to stand in position even for the duration of taking an OPG. Oblique lateral radiographs are often used as an alternative in such circumstances (Greenwood, 2013). Additional use for this method is where the anatomy or physical posture of th

[EX: Opg: to dbt. of bar 19] Marvelous sound, isn't it? So vivid and bright. Well now all this dissection we've been doing up to now has taken care of exactly thirteen seconds of music; so you can see that if we went on X-raying every bar of the piece at this rate we'd finish our anatomy lesson next Purim. So we're going to have to skip Indications for OPG requests. An OPG or ORTHOPANTOGRAM, gives a panoramic view of the mandible and teeth. It is performed using a technique called tomography. The X-ray tube moves around the head, the x-ray film moves in the opposite direction behind your head. This generates an image slice where the mandible and teeth are in focus, and the. The report captured the connection details and determined that OPG Securities was often the first to connect to the servers. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, which did a forensic review of the NSE's co-location facility found that the logs for Server 27 (TBTCOLO27) show that between December 2012 and May 2014 , OPG was the first to connect on 357.

Radiographic Anatomy of Facial Bones. Bulging of fontanelle in infancy. and facial bones. skull vault, usually in women, of no significance. groove of feeding artery. and base of skull. Irregular sclerosis with thickened vault. Irregular sclerosis, thickened vault. mimic sutural diastasis Description. The Right Bronchus (bronchus dexter), wider, shorter, and more vertical in direction than the left, is about 2.5 cm. long, and enters the right lung nearly opposite the fifth thoracic vertebra.. The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it. About 2 cm. from its commencement it gives off a branch to the upper.

An OPG which stands for RTHOPANTOGRAM , gives a panoramic view of the mandible and teeth. It is performed using a technique called tomography. The X-ray tube moves around the head, the x-ray film moves in the opposite direction behind your head. This generates an image slice where the mandible and teeth are in focus, and the other structures are blurred Anatomy. 1. The radiographic age of this patient is. a. 7 - 8 years old b. 9 - 10 years old c. 12 - 13 years old d. 14 - 15 years old. 2. Identify the opaque structure apical to the maxillary central incisors. a. odontoma b. nose c. incisal foramen d. supernumary tooth. 3. The opacity indicated by the A should be recognized as OPG acts as a decoy receptor, binding to RANKL and blocking its interaction with RANK, inhibiting osteoclast development. Many of the calciotropic hormones and cytokines, including 1,25(OH) 2 D 3, PTH, PGE 2 and IL-11, appear to act through a dual capacity to inhibit production of OPG and stimulate production of RANKL. Estrogen, on the other. OPG and LC showed the least agreement for measurements based on the 3D data sets and showed the widest limits of agreement. Table 2. Mean differences (upper value minus left value; mm), range of 95% limits of agreement (mm), and 95% limits of agreement (mm) for CondProc (upper right) and RH (lower left) Adult - OPG - radiographic Anatomy. Saved by Jeremy Enfinger. 106. Dental World Dental Life Dental Health Dental Assistant Study Dental Hygiene School Radios Dental Training Radiology Student Facial Bones

Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated OPG was incubated with CAG cells for one hour at 37°C, then cell surface-bound OPG was removed by heparin wash, and the living cells were examined by confocal microscopy. After 1 hour OPG was clearly internalized, and a substantial part of it colocalized with the lysosomal marker (Figure 4) That is: NFP = GBHP - [CHP + BCOP] = 10 mm Hg. Or: NFP = 55 - [15 + 30] = 10 mm Hg ( Figure 25.4.1 ). Figure 25.4.1 - Net Filtration Pressure: The NFP is the sum of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures. A proper concentration of solutes in the blood is important in maintaining osmotic pressure both in the glomerulus and systemically Radiology Education - Radiographic Anatomy. Net Anatomy. One of the best resources for anatomy information of all kinds including cross sectional anatomy, gross anatomy and radiographic anatomy. Radiographic Anatomy of the Skeleton. This site features skeletal radiographs that can be viewed with or without anatomical text labels. Radiographic.

Panoramic radiograph - Wikipedi

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of a Wind Turbine Abstract There are two primary variants of the wind turbine, the vertical axis wind turbine and the horizontal axis wind turbine. Most - Selection from Wind Power Generation [Book Face anatomy seen on XR. There are several standard plain XR views used to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the face. Structures of the face are anatomically complex, and CT may therefore be required for a more complete assessment of facial fractures or other pathology. Occipitomental view (OM) -

Normal Panoramic Anatomy

Anatomy and Development. Teeth are composed of multiple components . The crown is covered by enamel, which is highly radiopaque. The root is enveloped by a thin layer of cementum. Dentin is located deep to the enamel and cementum and is isoattenuating relative to the cementum and hypoattenuating relative to the enamel A very common evolutionary change seen today, the third molars are found mostly impacted. Among the numerous types, one of the most challenging one's is horizontal impaction. A CBCT enables the surgeon to see the exact anatomy of the tooth, it's exact orientation, and the precise relation to the mandibular canal, which will facilitate the. Anatomy of a Wind Energy Project. A coal-fired or nuclear plant can take a decade to build, but the construction of a wind farm can be completed in six months to a year. Here is a step-by-step look at the construction of a wind farm from the groundbreaking through power generation. Step 1: The electrical contractors typically win contracts. The OPG/TRAIL Complex in an In Vitro Osteoclastogenesis Model Derived From Human Multiple Myeloma-Bone Disease GIACOMINA BRUNETTI , Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, 70124 Bari, Ital

Orthopantogram(OPG), is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. It shows a two-dimensional view of a half-circle from ear to ear. A large number of anatomical structures appear on an OPG: Soft tissue structures, air shadows, bony structures, including the mandible, maxilla and temporal bone The OPG is the best x ray technique for accurate diagnosis of mandibular fracture and TMJ dislocation. Its accuracy in mandibular fracture is even greater when combined with an AP view of the mandible. Unfortunately, the OPG requires the patient to be seated and remain still for a period of time Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. We investigated the localization of OPG in rat tibia using a specific peptide antibody to clarify the role of OPG in bone remodeling. OPG reactivity was mainly seen on bone surfaces An Orthopantomogram (OPG), also known as an orthopantogram or panorex, is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. It shows a two-dimensional view of a half-circle from ear to ear. Dental panoramic radiography equipment consists of a horizontal rotating arm which holds an X-ray source and a moving film mechanism. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the benign histology of optic pathway glioma (OPG) (low-grade astrocytoma), its biological behavior is unpredictable, and it is unclear whether specific morphologic or anatomic patterns may be predictive of prognosis. It is also unclear whether OPG associated with neurofibromatosis (NF) is a distinct entity from non-NF-OPG

Panoramic radiography OPG - SlideShar

  1. The Office of Problem Gambling (OPG) is dedicated to promoting awareness and prevention of gambling disorder and making treatment available to those negatively impacted by problem gambling behavior. OPG provides training related to the treatment of gambling disorder for counselors throughout the state
  2. This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of.
  3. DENTAL NUMBERING SYSTEMS There are three different numbering systems used to identify the teeth in dentistry. 1.The Universal Numbering Systemhas been adopted by the ADA and is in use by most general dentists today. Tooth number 1 is the tooth farthest back on the right side of your mouth in the upper (max
Mandible x-rays

The panoramic dental radiograph for emergency physicians

  1. The term normal in Anatomy refers to the shape and position most frequently found in individuals, that is, the typical shape. Anatomical variation is the deviation from the normal that does not bring any noticeable functional disorder . Not very unusual, the bifid mandibular canals are observed on panoramic radiographs (Figure 1)
  2. A fresh look at OPG and lateral cephalometric radiographs With its new Tomosharp technology and powerful image processing, the CS 8100's Evo Edition delivers outstanding image clarity. Easy to install, learn and use, the compact CS 8100 is the perfect unit for your routine imaging needs. Benefits at a glanc
  3. An OPG or ORTHOPANTOGRAM, gives a panoramic view of the mandible and teeth. It is performed using a technique called tomography. The X-ray tube moves around the head, the x-ray film moves in the opposite direction behind your head. This generates an image slice where the mandible and teeth are in focus, and the other structures are blurred

Orthopantomogram (OPG) This is an excellent method of demonstrating virtually all mandibular fractures, including the coronoid and condylar processes. Be aware however; occasionally symphysis menti fractures may not be seen Flattening the Cervical Spine for Optimal Power Generation The other part of the spine that can help with optimal power generation and transfer in martial arts is the cervical spine. To learn how to flatten or straighten the cervical curve let's look at our skull, and what the Chinese call the Baihui point (in Chinese 百会.

Two adjacent disks rotate at the same speed in opposite directions as an xray beam passes through their centers of rotation. Lead collimators in the shape of a slit, located at the x-ray source and at the image receptor, limit the central ray to a narrow vertical beam Radiologic Anatomy of the Tooth The tooth sits in a socket of alveolar bone and is composed primarily of dentin, a bonelike sub-stance of intermediate radiopacity. The crown— the portion of the tooth that projects out of the bone—is covered by enamel, the hardest substance in the human body and the most ra-diopaque Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is abundantly produced by osteoblasts at the bone surface and inhibits osteoclast activity, working as a key regulator of bone homeostasis. 8,9 Since it has been reported that OPG (−/−) mice exhibit severe osteoporosis attributable to enhanced osteoclastogenesis, OPG is considered to be a protective factor in bone. Jun 15, 2017 - Gastroenterology Institute of Southern California is one of the leading colonoscopy centers in Los Angeles, California having experienced and well trained staff

Mandibular fractures - OPG - Radiology at St

Interpretation of panoramic radiographs - Perschbacher

Pathophysiology. Biological causes of osteoporosis. In adults, the daily removal of small amounts of bone mineral, a process called resorption, is balanced by an equal deposition of new mineral in order to maintain bone strength. When this balance tips toward excessive resorption, bones weaken and over time can become brittle and prone to. LIMITATIONS OF OPG Image distortion Lingual structures would be projected higher than buccal surfaces Use of screen film combination results in less details than intral oral images Production of ghost images It can be used as a alternative for intra oral full mouth series when combined with bite wing radiographs Normal Radiographic Anatomy (OPG Mandible x-rays. Tessa Davis. Mandible x-rays, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2016. Available at: An orthopantomogram (OPG) is a good view to demonstrate most mandibular fractures. A PA mandible shows the displacement of fractures. It also demonstrates symphysis menti fractures which can be missed on the OPG

Relevant Anatomy Typically the scalene musculature consists of three paired muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior scalene muscles. Occasionally a fourth muscle, the scalene minimus, is present or the muscle fascicles of the others may be fused, resulting in considerable variation in the origin and insertion site Case one, OPG vs. CBCT-50-year-old, CBCT is also beneficial in assessing anatomy outside the dental alveolar region, including the zygoma, paranasal sinuses and airway

Normal orthopantomography (OPG) Radiology Case

Wind Power Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to one of the leading renewable power generation technologies. It includes detailed descriptions of on and offshore generation systems, and demystifies the relevant wind energy technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors Ai Med Ltd.,best opg machine in bangladesh,Best opg machine price in bangladesh,OPG machine price in bangladesh,best rvg machine price in bangladesh,medical equipment. Nuclear power is used across the world to generate electricity, but do you know how it is produced or which countries have nuclear power plants? Take a look at our infographic to learn more

radiology of Maxillary sinusSelf study-pan-anatomy

Analysis of a Panoramic Radiograph University of Toronto

Planmeca ProMax® 3D ClassicCapture a clear view of the mandible and maxilla. Planmeca ProMax® 3D Classic. Our Planmeca ProMax® 3D Classic unit covers the entire dentition - making it an excellent option for full arch dental 3D imaging needs The OPG overexpression we detected by human MM T cells had been previously reported only in murine T cells. 7 On the basis of RANKL and OPG effects on bone remodeling, consisting of RANKL stimulation and OPG inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, we can argue that the persistence of osteoclastogenesis despite the high levels of OPG in our system. The RANK-RANKL-OPG axis is known to regulate not only normal bone physiology but also alterations in RANK-RANKL-OPG interactions that play a role in bone disease. Uncoupling in the balance between the level and activity of these molecules culminates in osteoporotic or osteopetrotic phenotypes due to an increase or decrease in osteoclast.

Panoramic Radiography - Uses, Disadvantages and Structures

Illustrations. Fig. 788. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Henry Gray (1825-1861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918. Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves and their communication with other nerves There are a range of power generation sources which can supply this energy - our new announcement means we will not support the most carbon-intensive sources of energy. We're committed to supporting our clients and markets in developing alternate sources of power generation. 5

Video: Panoramic (OPG) and TMJ Imaging dmdimagin

OPG is an X-ray that is useful to determine teeth positioning and growth, and to assess teeth that may not have surfaced yet, such as wisdom teeth. It is a specific x-ray used to demonstrate a base-line position of facial and dental anatomy prior to orthodontic treatment Objective. Hemarthrosis triggers hemophilic arthropathy, involving the target joints. The histopathogenesis of blood-induced joint damage remains unclear. The triad of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG; RANK-RANKL-OPG) controls bone turnover. Our aim was to evaluate RANK-RANKL-OPG expression in the synovium of hemophilic patients. Editor's Note:This is an updated version of an article that originally was published in Sept. 2008. What happens when a bank fails? Here is an inside look at the Federal Deposit Insurance. Parathyroid hormone PTH causes A increased RANKL and increased OPG B increased from ANATOMY 2120 at Georgia State Universit The first step in the Dentascan study is a brief CT scan of your jaw. We use computer technology to produce life-size filmed or SIM/Plant computer files that your doctor can use to see and precisely measure the anatomy. Preparing for your examination. OPG's and Cephalometry scans do not require an appointment Figure 1 Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the TRAIL:OPG ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls. Levels of TRAIL and OPG were determined by ELISA. Horizontal bars are median, upper and lower edges of box are 75th and 25th percentiles, lines extending from box are 10th and 90th percentiles