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Enterotoxigenic e. coli pathogenesis

Review on pathogenicity mechanism of enterotoxigenic

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea in children. Colonization factors (CFs) and LT enterotoxin are the major ETEC candidate vaccines. To cause disease, ETEC must adhere to the epithelium of the small intestine by means of CFs. Watery diarrhea is produced due to the effects of the enterotoxins
  2. al cramps, and fever. ETEC can be life threatening due to significant fluid loss and severe dehydration
  3. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries, and perennially the most common cause of traveller's diarrhea. ETEC constitute a diverse pathotype that elaborate heat-labile and/or heat-stable enterotoxins. Recent molecular pathogenesis studies
  4. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is defined as containing the E. coli strains that elaborate at least one member of two defined groups of enterotoxins: heat-stable toxin (ST) and heat-stable toxin (LT)
  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food‐ and water‐borne pathogens that constitute a serious public health threat in low‐income and developed countries, respectively

Five classes (virotypes) of E. coli that cause diarrheal diseases are now recognized: enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, are among the most important pathogens infecting children worldwide because of their high prevalence in both the community and hospital setting, and because they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhea Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are a pathogenic variant or pathovar of E. coli defined by production of diarrheagenic heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) - Emory Universit

Ingested pathogenic E. coli adhere to receptors on microvilli of enterocytes via pili. There they colonize, proliferate, and elaborate enterotoxins that cause excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes by crypt epithelial cells which markedly exceeds absorptive capacity resulting in a net flow of tissue fluids into the lumen From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Enterotoxigenic escherichia coli) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria normally live in the intestines of people and animals. Most E. coli are harmless and actually are an important part of a healthy human intestinal tract. However, some E. coli are pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness, either diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract. The types of E. coli that can cause diarrhea can be transmitted through. Evolution. Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains exhibit both phenotypic and genetic diversity. This likely relates to the fact that genes for both ST and LT are encoded on plasmids (Gyles et al., 1974).Several lines of evidence support the idea that ETEC have arisen through independent acquisition of these essential toxin genes by a genetically diverse population of E. coli Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(ETEC) strains are among the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. These pathogens disproportionately afflict children in developing countries, where they cause substantial morbidity and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year

Molecular mechanisms of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

KEY WORDS: Diarrhea, Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Enterotoxigenic E.coli, Virulence factors,Mucosal immunity, Vaccine. Please cite this article as follows: Nazarian Sh, Amani J. Pathogenesis and Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2017;19(6):13-21. Corresponding author: Sh. Nazarian (PhD Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are ubiquitous diarrheal pathogens that thrive in areas lacking basic human needs of clean water and sanitatio We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections James M. Fleckenstein1,2 & F. Matthew Kuhlmann1 Published online: 4 March 2019 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019 Abstract Purpose of Review Review recent developments pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and sequelae o The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constitute a diverse pathotype which shares the ability to secrete and effectively deliver heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins to host epithelial receptors. new ETEC virulence factors and critical features of the molecular pathogenesis of these organisms continue to emerge. enterotoxigenic E. coli H10407 pathogenesis and interplay with microbiota in human gut models Charlène Roussel1,2, Kim De Paepe2, Wessam Galia3, Jana De Bodt2, Sandrine Chalancon1, Françoise Leriche4, Nathalie Ballet5, Sylvain Denis1, Monique Alric1, Tom Van de Wiele2*† and Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot1*† Abstrac Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors: adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is an important cause of traveler's diarrhea and diarrheal illnesses in children in the developing world. In this presentation we will focus on the main virulence attributes of this pathogenic category of E. coli, and discuss the evolution of studies conducted in our laboratory

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Bacteriology Microbe Note

Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Domestic Mammals and Birds. Escherichia coli is an important cause of disease worldwide and occurs in most mammalian species, including humans, and in birds. E. coli was first described in 1885 by a German pediatrician, Theodor Escherich, in the faeces of a child suffering from diarrhoea Escherichia coli is a diverse bacterial species which is widely distributed in the environment but also exists as a commensal and pathogen of different host species. Human intestinal pathogenic E. coli causes over 160 million cases of diarrhea and an estimated 1 million deaths per year. The majority of deaths are attributable to one pathovar of E. coli, namely, enterotoxigenic E. coli. The. Worldwide, enterotoxigenic E coli are estimated to cause more than 600 million cases of diarrhea annually and 700,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. ETEC is the most common enteropathogen in developing countries, accounting for approximately 210 million diarrhea episodes and approximately 380,000 deaths This article describes case definitions, epidemiology, reservoirs, transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment complications and long-term sequelae, and the prevention and control of the diarrheal illnesses caused by the ETEC/enterotoxigenic E. coli, EPEC /enteropathogenic E. coli, EAEC/enteroaggregative E .coli, STEC/Shiga-toxin producing. E. coli (pathogenic strains) is too broad for the scope of the Microbial Work Group. Pathogenic E. coli can be divided into 6 different pathotypes which are associated with diarrhea. The six pathotypes are: 1. Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) (also could be referred to as VTEC or EHEC), 2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), 3

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, [1] as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. [2] Insufficient data exist, but conservative estimates suggest that each year, about 157,000 deaths occur, mostly in children, from ETEC A small proportion of E. coli strains are pathogenic. The harmless strains produce vitamin K and prevent colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria. It is classified into serotypes based on cell wall (O), capsular (K), fimbrial (F) and flagellar (H) antigens. e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Pathogenic strains. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhoea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, exist.Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhoea, or more severe diseases such as heamorrhagic colitis and heamolytic uremic syndrome

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute watery diarrheal illness in children, have also been linked to nondiarrheal sequelae including malnutrition. ETEC produce heat-labile toxin (LT) to stimulate the production of cellular cAMP, ultimately modulating ion channels to release salt and water into the intestinal lumen, resulting in diarrhea Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: HELP: Use this page to decide if Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is the topic you want to explore. Technical Definition: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms. E. coli. strains, suggests strain-specific . E. coli. binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis. Keywords: porcine, enterotoxigenic . Escherichia coli, intestinal epithelial cells, adherence, pathogenesis

ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI AND RELATION TO VIRULENCE Prageeth Rukshan Wijemanne, Ph.D. University of Nebraska, 2015 Advisor: Rodney A. Moxley Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of porcine-origin enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (pETEC). The prototypi Escherichia coli is the predominant aerobic gram-negative organism of the human intestine. Whereas most E. coli isolates are harmless intestinal commensals, several highly adapted E. coli have developed the ability to cause a spectrum of human diseases. The diarrheagenic E. coli can be subdivided into six distinct categories, each having a characteristic mode of pathogenesis (), epidemiology. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) contributes significantly to the substantial burden of infectious diarrhea among children living in low- and middle-income countries. In the absence of a vaccine for ETEC, children succumb to acute dehydration as well as nondiarrheal sequelae related to these infections, including malnutrition Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea among children less than 3 years of age in developing countries and in travelers to these areas. The key pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of ETEC are the production of colonization factors (CFs) and a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or a heat-stable enterotoxin

Ontology: Escherichia coli (C0014834) A common, gram negative gut bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory. Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Escherichia coli Progress 11/01/98 to 10/31/03 Outputs Specific strains of the bacterium known as Escherichia coli are important causes of severe dehydrating diarrhea and death in swine. The most common strains are members of a class known as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), because they produce toxins that affect the intestinal tract

The 2e of Escherichia coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive. Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular pathogenesis of each and the causes of. Enterotoxigenic E. coli produces a heat-labile enterotoxin which has the same mode of action as which organism's toxin? Vibrio cholerae Which type of E. coli is a cause of chronic diarrhea and growth retardation in children Escherichia coli detection for food and beverage safety: Rapid testing solutions and regulatory guidance to avoid contamination. According to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC), the large and diverse bacterial group of gram-positive, rod shaped Escherichia coli, (E. coli) contain numerous mammal-associated strains with many harmless, some beneficial, and some harmful to human health.

F4 + enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is a kind of motile Gram-negative bacteria, consisting of three fimbrial variants F4ab, F4ac and F4ad. F4 + ETEC infection causes diarrhea of neonatal and post-weaned piglets in clinical practice, leading to serious economic losses in the swine industry [1, 2].It is worth noting that diarrhea is commonly associated with insufficient dietary zinc (Zn 2. Diagnosis. To diagnose illness caused by E. coli infection, your doctor sends a sample of your stool to a laboratory to test for the presence of E. coli bacteria. The bacteria may be cultured to confirm the diagnosis and identify specific toxins, such as those produced by E. coli O157:H7 E.coli Antimicrobial therapy- E. coli is usually susceptible to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, though drug resistant strains are increasingly prevalent. It is essential to do susceptibility testing. Treatment of patients with EHEC infections is not recommended because it can increase the release of shiga-like toxins and actually trigger HU

Escherichia coli is a facultative, enteric, Gram-negative, motile/flagellated, and lactose-fermenting rod that occur in the genus Escherichia and family Enterobacteria or Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae are bacteria that naturally exist in the intestinal tract of animals and humans, and also found in water and soil. Because the natural habitat of E. coli is the intestinal tract of. The 2e of Escherichia coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive.Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular pathogenesis of each and the causes of. Escherichia coli is an inhabitant of the intestinal tract of animals and humans (Wetzel, 2005). Six different groups of pathogenic E. coli strains exist that harbor various virulence factors which enable them to cause diarrheal disease; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli (EcL), Canada. This integrated tool, designed by the EcL, permits the monitoring of the temporal trends of the different patho-genic E. coli detected at the laboratory, since 1990. Thus, in swine, in Quebec, most pathogenic E. coli detected in ND and PWD cases belong to one of the various viro from human colorectal adenocarcinoma frequently used to study E. coli [14]. We used the non-pathogenic commensal E. coli HS strain and the pathogenic enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 1766a strain. To assay the E. coli-mediated stress granule assembly, Caco-2 cells were exposed to 0.5 mM of sodium arsenite (Ars) for 30 min or 1 h (as a control for S

Enterotoxigenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

  1. ETEC, or Enterotoxigenic E. coli, is the disease commonly referred to as traveler's diarrhea. ETEC causes diarrhea in children in developing countries and is the main cause of diarrhea in.
  2. Aims. To describe the temporal trends in Escherichia coli pathotypes and antimicrobial resistance detected in isolates from diseased-pig cases submitted to the EcL from 2008 to 2016, in Quebec, Canada, and to investigate the presence of spatiotemporal and phylogenetic clusters.. Methods and Results. Detection of 12 genes coding for virulence factors in pathogenic E. coli in pigs by PCR and.
  3. ation of cerebrospinal fluid Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Usually in patients with liver ailments Commonly caused by E. coli, but also anaerobes and Gram-positive cocci (S. pneumoniae) Endocarditis. Vascular endocardial surface inflammation Mostly caused by Gram.
  4. e genomic and phylogenetic characteristics of ETEC strain.
  5. Three groups of E. coli bacteria have been associated with diarrhoea in calves. The most common are enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic types are also common but are non-pathogenic to cattle, including the verocytotoxic (VTEC) forms that cause severe illness in humans such as E. coli 0157.The VTEC have been isolated from calves with diarrhoea (10% of.
  6. Enteropathogenic E. coli is the oldest recognized category of pathogenic E. coli. Pathogenesis of EPEC involves localized adherence of the bacteria to intestinal cells. This adherence causes an inflammatory response and a physical alteration of the integrity of the intestine. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is an important cause of traveler's.

E. coli. is often nonpathogenic, al- though different strains may cause diseases in gastroin- testinal, urinary, or central nervous systems [10]. Cur- rently, six categories of diarrheagenic . E. coli. have been acknowledged: enterotoxigenic . E. coli (ETEC) [11], en- teropathogenic . E. coli (EPEC) [12], enteroinvasive . E. coli (EIEC) [13. MeSH Heading Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Add Tree Number(s) B03.440.450.425.325.300.340 B03.660.250.150.180.100.340 Unique ID D054307 RDF Unique Identifie Initial attachment and subsequent colonization of the intestinal epithelium comprise critical events allowing enteric pathogens to survive and express their pathogenesis. In enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), these are mediated by a long proteinaceous fiber termed type IVb pilus (T4bP). We have reported that the colonization factor.

Pathogenic E. coli - Textbook of Bacteriolog

Pathogenic Escherichia coli • Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains (ETEC) • Enteroinvasive E. coli strains (EIEC) • Diffuse-adhering E. coli strains (DAEC) • Enteroaggregative E. coli strains (EAggEC) • Enteropathogenic E. coli strains (EPEC) • Enterohemorrhagic E.coli stains (EHEC) O157:H7 - STEC (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract whereas ETEC is the major cause of human diarrhea which affects hundreds of. Genetic plasticity promotes evolution and a vast diversity in Escherichia coli varying from avirulent to highly pathogenic strains, including the emergence of virulent hybrid microorganism. This ability also contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. These hybrid pathogenic E. coli (HyPEC) are emergent threats, such as O104:H4 from the European outbreak in 2011, aggregative.

E. coli Infection. E. coli normally lives in your intestines. Most strains are usually harmless. A few strains cause diarrhea/bloody diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pains and cramps. One strain can lead to kidney failure if not properly managed. Eating contaminated food is the most common way to get an E. coli infection Diarrhoea remains a common cause of illness in Guatemala, with children suffering most frequently from the disease. This study directly compared the frequency, enterotoxin, and colonization factor (CF) profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from children living in a rural community in Guatemala and from Western visitors to the same location during the same seasons. Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to diarrheal illness in children in low- and middle-income countries and travelers to these areas. There is an ongoing effort to develop vaccines against ETEC, and the most reliable immune correlate of protection against ETEC is considered to be the small intestinal secretory IgA response that targets ETEC-specific. Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of mammalian's gut, but some strains acquired virulence factor and became pathogenic. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) are among pathogenic strains of E. coli. Vegetables and fruits could be sources of transmission Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries, and perennially the most common cause of traveller's diarrhea. Recent molecular pathogenesis studies reveal sophisticated pathogen-host interactions that might be exploited in efforts to prevent these important infections. While vaccine.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Bacteriology

  1. THE PRODUCTION OF THE E. COLI COMMON PILUS BY ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE By Dana Blackburn May 2010 Chair: Jorge A. Giron Major: Medical Sciences The Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative organisms including enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  2. Traditionally, the study of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an important swine pathogen, has focused primarily on plasmid-encoded virulence factors, despite the fact that chromosomal factors are known to play a role in ETEC pathogenesis in humans.1 Recent studies have established that non-ETEC E. coli, such a
  3. CFA (colonization factor antigen): enterotoxigenic E. Coli Mannose resistant fimbriae (e.g. P, M, S, F1C and Dr fimbriae):-Hemagglutinate with RBCs that is not inhibited by mannose -Expressed by uropathogenic E. coli and role in diarrhoeal ds. P fimbriae bind specifically to the P blood group antigen
  4. ated food or.
  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli synonyms, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli pronunciation, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli translation, English dictionary definition of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. n. a species of rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine of humans and other animals, sometimes pathogenic
  6. A total of 39 pathogenic E. coli isolates from the three meat types were categorized into three virulence groups, namely enterotoxigenic E. coli (43.6%), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (35.9%; 22.6% of beef, 7.3% of poultry, and 2.0% of pork), and enteropathogenic E. coli (20.5%)

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections SpringerLin

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major economic threat to pig production globally, with serogroups O8, O9, O45, O101, O138, O139, O141, O149 and O157 implicated as the leading diarrhoeal pathogens affecting pigs below four weeks of age. A multiple antimicrobial resistant ETEC O157 (O157 SvETEC) representative of O157 isolates from a pig farm in New South Wales, Australia that.
  2. The enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli are present in large numbers in the small intestine, and in this case it is insufficient to merely isolate and identify the E. coli. Demonstration of the significant fimbrial antigens (F4, F5, F6, F17, F18 and F41) or the enterotoxin itself is necessary
  3. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the commonest cause of bacterial diarrhea amongst children and travelers with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Vaccines to prevent or curtail ETEC infections are urgently needed to improve the health of a highly disadvantaged population

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most devastating pathogens associated with diarrhea in animals and humans, annually accounting for 157 000 deaths among children [].ETEC pathogenicity is dependent on colonizing factors (also known as adhesins) and enterotoxins [].ETEC that is associated with diarrhea in neonatal pigs expresses one or more fimbrial adhesins, including F4. Escherichia coli ( C0014834 ) A common, gram negative gut bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size, normal lack of pathogenicity, and ease of growth in the laboratory. Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Escherichia coli The Organism. Escherichia coli is comprised of both non-pathogenic strains as well as pathogenic strains. More generally, E.coli is a gram negative bacillus that is an important and normal component of the gut flora of mammals and birds. Below is an electron micrograph of a non-pathogenic E. coli strain: These mutualistic inhabitants of the gut. E. coli O157 : H7 became the first of several strains referred to as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC, which can produce one or more Shiga toxin (also called verocytotoxins and formerly known as Shiga-like toxins). STEC strains can survive in fresh ground beef and on fresh leafy green vegetables, and it is well known that the main reservoirs.

Escherichia coli, Diarrheagenic - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow

enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: strain of Escherichia coli that attaches to the duodenum or proximal small intestine mucosa, where it forms heat-stable and heat-labile toxins that activate adenylate cyclase, causing watery diarrhea. Responsible for 40-70% of traveler's diarrhea; chiefly waterborne in human feces. Most important cause of. Vaccines for the protection of neonatal piglets from enterotoxigenic E. coli were developed nearly twenty years ago and have been highly effective. However, currently, there are no commercially available vaccines for the protection of weaned pigs from post-weaning diarrhea. This project is focused on developing a non-living vaccine that can be delivered by a needle-less route to protect weaned. Pathogenic E. coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive. Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Diarrhoeal Diseases. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. For example, vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), two of the leading bacterial causes of Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of with the most.

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