Aetiology of cardiovascular disease

All New Patients Welcome at Memorial City Cardiology Associate Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a world-wide cause of mortality in humans and its incidence is on the rise in Africa. In this review, we discuss the putative role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the aetiology of CVD and consequently identify mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation as a viable genetic risk factor to be considered

Video: Aetiology & Epidemiology of CVD-Cardiovascular Diseas

This chapter introduces and explains the topic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its components, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. It introduces approaches used to investigate the relationship between risk factors and disease Welcome to this course on the aetiology, epidemiology and interventions for non-communicable diseases of the Global Diseases Masterclass. We've selected four disease areas and will go through each in turn. The diseases we've chosen are: Colorectal Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Dementia, and Diabetes Papers p 1273 It is a common tendency in science to argue that in order for my pet hypothesis to be correct yours has to be wrong. Indeed, it is somewhat unsatisfying for both yours and mine to be right at the same time. Barker's work on the fetal and infant origins of coronary heart disease has stimulated such reactions.1 The two positions are that coronary heart disease is determined by. 1. cor vasa. 1964;6:169-77. factors contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. bioerck g. pmid: 14177016 [pubmed - indexed for medline Prolonged acidemia with high blood levels of free fatty acids is proposed to shape the basic context for formation of fatty acid micelles and vesicles with an acidic core that fuse with the endothelia, disrupt vital cell processes, and initiate atherosclerotic plaque formation

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The aetiology of cardiovascular disease: a role for

The Aetiology and Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Table 2 shows the results from the 11 prospective studies that investigated depression or anxiety in the aetiology of coronary heart disease, all of which were positive. All three of the prospective studies examining the effect of anxiety in the aetiology of coronary heart disease had positive results Atherosclerosis -- or hardening of the arteries -- is the leading cause of heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease. Find out more about atherosclerosis causes, symptoms, risk. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent life-threatening health conditions in western countries, associated with relatively high mortality rates. and this describes the central clinical phenomenon, aetiology, mechanisms of change, and impact on patients. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder in most European countries. Patients with FH are characterised by a raised level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Currently there is no consensus regarding the clinical utility to predict future coronary events or testing for the presence of subclinical.

Aetiology & Epidemiology of CVD - Cardiovascular Disease

Summary Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a world-wide cause of mortality in humans and its incidence is on the rise in Africa. In this review, we discuss the putative role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the aetiology of CVD and consequently identify mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation as a viable genetic risk factor to be considered. We then describe the contribution and pitfalls of several. Cardiovascular disease is currently the most common cause of death in the developed world and is increasing in incidence in developing countries. High blood pressure, smoking and high levels of cholesterol are the primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease.While these and other risk factors account for the majority of the aetiology and epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, they cannot. Diseases of the heart muscle were widely documented in Rudolf Virchow's publication of Die Cellularpathologie in 1858, in which he defined nonvalvular heart disease as 'chronic myocarditis', owing. This chapter discusses the four trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) epidemiology: (i) the decline in CHD rates in the rich countries of the world which has been a dominant feature of the epidemiological landscape; (ii) the increasing importance of cardiovascular disease, including CHD, in developing countries; (iii) intense research on 'newer' risk factors; and (iv) that the established.

Aetiology of coronary heart disease The BM

Coronary artery narrowing in coronary heart disease: comparison of cineangiographic and necropsy findings. Ann Intern Med. 1979; 91: 350-356. Crossref Medline Google Scholar; 12 Schoenhagen P, Ziada KM, Kapadia SR, Crowe TD, Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM. Extent and direction of arterial remodeling in stable versus unstable coronary syndromes: an. Cardiovascular Disease.ppt. 1. HEART DISEASES By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran MD (Pead), Ph.D. (Yoga Science) 2. INTERNAL VIEW OF THE HEART. 3. Chambers: The heart is divided by a septum into two halves. The halves are in turn divided into chambers. The upper two chambers of the heart are called atria and the lower two chambers are called.

Swiss Medical Weekly - Aetiological blood biomarkers of

Genetically predicted alcohol consumption was consistently associated with stroke and peripheral artery disease across the different analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) per 1-SD increase of log-transformed alcoholic drinks per week were 1.27 ( [95% CI, 1.12-1.45] P =2.87×10 −4) for stroke and 3.05 ( [95% CI, 1.92-4.85] P =2.30×10 −6) for. Disease aetiology and prevention. Non-communicable diseases are largely caused by an unhealthy diet and lifestyle. We study the role of nutrition and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases and cancer by means of epidemiological studies and randomized trials, underpinned with research on pathophysiological mechanisms Abstract. A concise overview of current knowledge on the aetiology of congenital heart disease is provided. At present, only 10 to 20% of the cases occurring in neonates can be attributed to known risk factors. Recurrence within relatives, chromosomal anomalies, genetic disorders, maternal diseases and teratogen exposure are addressed briefly. The association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has mostly been examined using broad endpoints or cause-specific mortality. The purpose of our study is to compare the effect of alcohol consumption in the aetiology of a range of cardiovascular disease phenotypes Unfortunately very few data exist on the aetiology of heart failure in the 50% of patients who are over 75 years of age . Although IHD is common, hypertensive heart disease may predominate in older patients and account for the high prevalence of heart failure with normal systolic function diagnosed in this group . Alternatively, reversible.

Factors Contributing to The Aetiology of Cardiovascular

This chapter reviews the aetiology and epidemiology of the coronavirus infection; potential pathophysiological mechanisms of disease involving the cardiovascular system including the clinical utility of biomarkers, electrocardiography and echocardiography as well as autopsy cardiac pathology and histopathology Researchers are learning that nearly all conditions and diseases have a genetic component. Some disorders, such as sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis, are caused by variants (also known as mutations) in single genes. The causes of many other disorders, however, are much more complex. Common health problems such as heart disease, type 2. The historical basis for understanding erectile function as a neurovascular phenomenon and the advance from fanciful to effective treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) are reviewed, with emphasis on patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). ED occurs in 60% of CVD patients by 40 years of age. Male ED and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) diminish quality of life and often warn of occult CVD Echocardiography (echocardiogram): An ultrasound video of the beating heart. Congestive heart failure, heart valve disease, and other conditions contributing to pulmonary vascular disease can be.

Coronary artery disease is usually caused by a build up cholesterol rich deposits or plaques on the lining inside the artery. These plaques are also called atheromatous plaques or simply atheromas. Coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as ischemic heart disease, is a leading cause of death in Western countries and is increasingly common in developing countries. The atherosclerotic process includes injury to arterial endothelium, fatty streaks due to macrophage ingestion of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol at the. Diet plays a major role in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and as a modifiable risk factor is the focus of many prevention strategies. Recently vegan diets have gained popularity and there is a need to synthesise existing clinical trial evidence for their potential in CVD prevention

On the etiology of cardiovascular diseases: A new

Nevertheless, the study had a profound impact on the medical awareness of the mounting epidemic of coronary disease and its extension into young age groups by the mid-1950's. (HB) Footnote: A subsequent study among U.S. casualties in Vietnam some 20 years later suggested that fewer (45% vs. 77%) of similar young men had evidence of coronary. aetiology of coronary heart disease in old men* BY ROY M. ACHESONt From the Department of Social Medicine, Moyne Institute, University of Dublin In recent years much attention has been paid to coronary heart disease in middle-aged men, because in this group the incidence of and the mortality from the disease have increased very considerably Incident cardiovascular disease and cause-specific mortality were ascertained through ongoing linkage, via the unique national identification number, to electronic hospital records from the nationwide health insurance system (which has >98% coverage across the ten study areas), to established local registries of stroke and coronary heart. Aetiology. It is unclear whether a single primary abnormality triggers a cascade of diverse events that lead to the manifestation of the components of metabolic syndrome. Reaven G. Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002 Jul 16;106(3).

1.1 Defining coronary artery disease The coronary circulation consists of coronary arteries, the microcircula tion and the coronary veins. Its function is to supply oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium and rem ove carbon dioxide and waste products. The im portance of this function is exemplified by the fact that 112.44. 112. According to the latest WHO data published in 2018 Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in Ethiopia reached 47,712 or 7.81% of total deaths. The age adjusted Death Rate is 112.44 per 100,000 of population ranks Ethiopia #112 in the world. Review other causes of death by clicking the links below or choose the full health profile In edema and heart disease, for example, the legs may easily weigh an extra 5 or 10 pounds each. Severe leg edema can interfere with blood flow, leading to ulcers on the skin Aetiology: The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder. The word aetiology is mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder

Diabetic cardiovascular disease - Aetiology BMJ Best

In 22% of all patients aetiology was rheumatic heart disease. In developing countries, approximately 30 milion cases of rheumatic fever occur annually, in general before the age of 20. Approximately 60% of patients will develop rheumatic heart disease, which becomes clinically evident 1 to 3 decades later. Rheumatic heart disease remains the. Depression and Anxiety in the Aetiology and Prognosis of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes: a CALIBER Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and more specifically coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the number one cause of death and disease burden worldwide [1, 2].At the individual level, prevention is based on the estimation of cardiovascular risk [].However, the sensitivity of cardiovascular risk estimation is low and a significant proportion of CHD events occurs in individuals classified as having. Background and aim . During ageing, the prevalence of dementia, and especially of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), increases. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between AD and CVD and its risk factors, with a view to explain the underlying mechanisms of this association. Methods

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading contributor to the burden of morbidity and mortality across the world. Although the prevalence of CVD has declined significantly over the last two decades in many countries [], cardiovascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke remain the two most common causes of disease worldwide according to Global Burden of Disease and World Health. Abstract. Heart failure is a common long-term condition with increasing incidence. More a syndrome than a disease, it can have many causes. The main clinical symptoms are breathlessness, fatigue and ankle swelling, but these are not specific to the condition; patients can also present with depression. This article, the first in a three-part. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy is low ( 1 ) however cases of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during pregnancy are increasing due to the 1) rise in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity, and 2) older maternal age. Advances in treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) leading to more CHD patients.


The disclosure forms of all experts involved in the development of these Guidelines are available on the ESC website www.escardio.org/guideline Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of complications during surgery and the peri-operative period. In Europe, approximately 30% of patients undergoing surgical procedures have significant cardiovascular comorbidities, with up to 42% of all peri-operative complications having a cardiovascular aetiology . While the vast majority of. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease often go hand-in-hand. Persons with diabetes are at a much greater risk for cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and high blood pressure. Other vascular problems include poor circulation to the legs and feet. Unfortunately, many of the cardiovascular problems can go undetected and can start.

Coronary heart disease is now the leading cause of death worldwide. An estimated 3.8 million men and 3.4 million women die each year from CHD 1. In developed countries heart disease is the leading cause of death in men and women 2. In Europe CHD accounts for an estimated 1.95 million deaths each year 4. CHD is the most common cause of deaths in. HF is often classified based on the EF. HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is identified where the EF is less than 40%. HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can be harder to diagnose, and is defined as EF >50% with other markers of heart failure (e.g. diastolic dysfunction or structural heart disease) Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes impaired blood flow in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD), CAD is the most common form of heart disease and. Hypertension, condition that arises when blood pressure is abnormally high. Hypertension occurs when the body's smaller blood vessels (the arterioles) narrow, causing the blood to exert excessive pressure against the vessel walls and forcing the heart to work harder to maintain the pressure

Epidemiology, aetiology, and prognosis of heart failure

  1. Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive ability and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish family health study Intelligence, 2010 Bridie Fitzpatric
  2. This is the main aetiology of AVD in the emerging countries, where rheumatic fever is endemic. In developed countries, the incidence of rheumatic heart diseases is declining but the disease remains prevalent in the immigrant population [3]. Infective endocarditis. AVD may develop as a result of complicated infective endocarditis
  3. ABSTRACT Heart disease is a complex condition that is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is often seen as a disease of affluence, yet is strongly associated with a gradient in socio‐economic status. Its highly complex causality means that many different facets of social and economic life are implicated in its aetiology, including factors such as workplace hierarchy and agricultural.

Video: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Two major pathways of disease development are acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable chronic angina.1,2 The success of prevention measures and early treatment pathways in ACS has helped to reduce the heart failure (HF) burden due to post-infarction remodelling and systolic dysfunction 1. Cardiovascular System 2. Hypertension 3. Myocardial Ischemia Bits 'N' Pieces Blood, Heart, Blood-Vessels Keeping It Under Control Heart Rate, Blood Pressure When Things Go Wrong Hypertension, Ischemia, Heart Failure, Arrhythmias Aetiology Diagnosis Treatment Sympathoplegic Drugs, Diuretics, Vasodilators, Angiotensin Antagonists 4. Heart. heart disease, cannot be modified but are associated with a higher risk of CHD. The Impact of Coronary Heart Disease3 CHD is the leading major cause of death in the United States and accounts for about one out of every six deaths. Each year, 785,000 Americans experience a new coronary event and 470,000 will have

Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health. Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology. : M. G. Marmot, Paul Elliott. Oxford University Press, 2005 - Medical - 932 pages. 3 Reviews. Heart attack (ischaemic heart disease or coronary heart disease) as one of a group of cardiovascular diseases, is one of the main causes of death. Epstein FH. Cardiovascular disease epidemiology: a journey from the past into the future. Circulation 1996;93:1755-64. Stamler J. Established major coronary risk factors. In: Marmot M, Elliott P, eds. Coronary heart disease epidemiology: from aetiology to public health. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992:35-66 A variety of risk factors have been associated with coronary heart disease; examples include high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, diabetes, unhealthy diet, and family history of early coronary heart disease (i.e., diagnosed in middle age). Individuals with hereditary conditions such as familial hypercholesterolemia (a disorder in which the body's tissues. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of premature death and disability globally. Much is known of the main aetiological risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and smoking, with a raft of additional risks of increasing prevalence, such as obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, some of the most secure evidence-based management strategies in healthcare. Psychological and psychiatric factors, in particular, have an important role in the aetiology, development and outcome of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that depression, anxiety and PTSD can result in an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease

The aetiology of many human diseases includes the consequence of environmental factors. Until recently, infection was the major cause of premature mortality in the developing countries, but this is changing. gross national product per capita in a country becomes greater than $1200 per annum then the proportion of deaths from cardiovascular. Despite an overall reduction in cardiovascular disease mortality in the past 40 years, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide, with gender disparities. Women tend to present with cardiovascular disease up to 10 years later than men, although age-adjusted rates of cardiovascular disease mortality in women are similar to men, and account for more deaths than any.

Epidemiology, aetiology and prognosis of hypertension

  1. Angina is a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Angina (an-JIE-nuh or AN-juh-nuh) is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina, also called angina pectoris, is often described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest. Some people with angina symptoms say angina feels like a vise squeezing.
  2. Coronary Heart disease (CHD) is caused when the heart's blood vessels, the coronary arteries, become narrowed or blocked and cannot supply enough blood to the heart. Despite a substantial reduction in the rate of death from coronary heart disease (CHD) over the last decade, it remains one of the leading causes of death in Scotland ( Health of.
  3. gham Heart Study began in 1948 and helped discover that LDL and HDL cholesterol levels can help predict the risk of heart and blood vessel diseases such as heart attack and stroke. Visit the Fra
  4. Nowadays Coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as Coronary Arteries Disease, is one of major killer diseases in many countries. Up to 110,000 of people in England die from it every year. CHD is when your coronary arteries (the arteries that supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood) become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty.
  5. Finally, depression and coronary heart disease could share common antecedents—for example, environmental stressors and social supports. Table Table2 2 shows the results from the 11 prospective studies that investigated depression or anxiety in the aetiology of coronary heart disease, all of which were positive. All three of the prospective.
  6. g to provide an overview of ways designed explicitly to address social inequality, and the various ways in which social and economic effects at issues in the communication of such risk factors. impact on cardiovascular disease risk
  7. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from those for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to presentations found in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or in unstable angina. It is almost always associated with rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque and partial or.

Characterization of key events in COVID-19 disease pathophysiological progression. The dark blue shading indicates physiological viral host response over time, and the dark red shading indicates pathogenic hyperinflammatory host response over time. Figure adapted from Ref. 124, with permission from the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases is a peer reviewed, open access journal focused on clinical areas of cardiovascular medicine. The Journal provides the authors a platform for publication of their work and for the exchange of their ideas. We aim to publish utmost quality clinical content via open access providing the readers to immediately access without charge While the underlying aetiology of heart failure among adults in high-income countries (HIC) is IHD, in SSA the leading causes are hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart diseases

Coronary Artery Disease cdc

  1. The American Heart Association and American Stroke Association have published special guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. The European Union project 'A Road Map for Gender Medicine in Europe' pointed out the lack of female aspects in the guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology. So far, about 200 risk factors or non-healthy lifestyle factors have.
  2. The Heart Foundation website has detailed information on:. heart conditions; treatments; living with heart disease; wellbeing, including recipes; local support groups.; For a full risk assessment, ask your doctor or practice nurse for a heart and diabetes check. Heart attack. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a section of the heart muscle becomes blocked. If the blood flow is not.
  3. A molecular genetic approach to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease in South Africa with reference to progressive familial heart block . By Paul Andries Brink. Abstract. Dissertation (D.Phil.) -- University of Stellenbosch, 1997.Full text to be digitised and attached to bibliographic recor
  4. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart.
FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS: Valvular Heart Disease

operative complications having a cardiovascular aetiology [12]. While the vast majority of patients with stable cardiovascular disease can safely undergo low and intermediate-risk surgery without requiring additional assessment, patients with severe, complex, undertreated or unstable cardiovascular disease should be considered fo Valvular heart disease can be caused by valvular stenosis or valvular insufficiency. In the valvular heart disease condition valvular stenosis , the tissues forming the valve leaflets become stiffer, narrowing the valve opening and reducing the amount of blood that can flow through it. If the narrowing is mild, the overall functioning of the.

Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to

  1. The etiology of hypertension in this context will include side effects of medication, kidney disease, heart disease, liver disease and cardiovascular related ailments. In cases of secondary hypertension, hypertension etiology can be resolved by treating the underlying medical disorders
  2. by 39.6% between 2007 and 2016. However, coronary heart disease is still a leading cause of death and a national clinical priority for Scotland. The incidence rate for coronary heart disease decreased over the past decade by 26.7%. Incidence rates for coronary heart disease remain consistently higher in males than females
  3. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque buildup on the artery walls. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. A thin layer of cells forms a lining that keeps.

Heart disease is one of the most common disorders in America. Hence, a big chunk of the scientific community is dedicated to studying the risk factors of, and treatment options for the disease. A recent study looked into the early signs of heart disease. It concluded that young men can predict the incidence of heart disease based on the length. Promoting rational therapy within the discipline of cardiology, the American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs covers all aspects of the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, particularly the place in therapy of newer and established agents.. Via a program of reviews and original clinical research articles, the journal addresses major issues relating to treatment of these disorders, including. INTRODUCTION. Heart failure affects up to 26 million adults worldwide. 1 The overall economic cost of heart failure in 2012 was estimated to be $108 billion per annum in the USA, of which 60% was related to inpatient care. 2,3 There has been increasing awareness over the last decade of the importance of developing heart failure registries to better understand the burden of the disease

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Serological studies and the detection of C pneumoniae in atheromatous lesions were the first indications of an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. 23 Seropositivity for C pneumoniae was associated with an increased risk for future cardiovascular disease, namely stroke, 24 carotid wall thickening, 25 and coronary heart disease. 26 US data on the prevalence of valvular heart disease. There are surprisingly little good quality data on the epidemiology of VHD. One difficulty in obtaining such data is that accurate diagnosis of the occurrence and severity of VHD requires high quality echocardiography in large numbers of patients. 1,3 In a landmark paper in 2006, Nkomo et al analysed pooled data from 12,000 subjects in three. Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the major cause of death among individuals with diabetes ().In observational studies, diabetes has been associated with two- to fourfold higher risks of CVD, in particular various types of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke (IS), and peripheral arterial disease (2-4)